Basic Electronics in Details

Basic Electronics in Details

Conductor: 

Through which current can flow easily i.e. with least resistance is called the conductor.

The conductor is of three Types: A) Good Conductor

B) Semi-Conductor

C) Bad Conductor

A) Good Conductor: Under normal room temperature, through which current can flow easily i.e. the number of free electrons is maximum, called Good Conductor. It gets hot quickly causing less durable.

Example of Good Conductor: Platinum, Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, Aluminium etc.

B) Semi-Conductor: This material falls in between Good and Bad conductor. Not as good as Good Conductor and not as bad as Bad Conductor. The number of free electrons is minimal in this material. It’s cost effective and durable i.e. if any semiconductor material gets heat up, resistance falls causing a long life of the component.

Example of Semiconductor: Germanium, Silicon, Selenium etc. Silico and Arsenic can be mixed to create a new material called semi-conductor.

Diode, Transistor, Fet, Mosfet, IC’s are made of with semiconductor.

C) Bad Conductor: Through this material, current can’t flow at all because of the scarcity of free electrons in it.

Example of Bad Conductor: Wood, Plastic, Paper etc.

 

Resistor: 

This component is used to drop both the voltage and resistance in the circuit. Resistors are black and thin in shape, white on both side soldered on the mobile PCB called SMD Resistor.

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Capacitor:

The capacitor is a component used both in Electronics and Electrical Circuits. Its function is to store the electrical energy and give this energy again to the circuit when necessary. In other words, it charges and discharges the electricity. Besides this, the functions of a capacitor are as follow :

  • It blocks the flow of DC ad permits the flow of AC.
  • It is used for coupling of the two sections.
  • It bypasses (grounds) the unwanted frequencies.
  • It fees the desired signal to any section.
  • It is used for phase shifting.
  • It is also used for a delay in time.
  • It is also used for filtration.
  • It is also used to get the tuned frequency.
  • It compares the two signals.
  • It is used as metre starter.

In fact, a capacitor works as a water tank. Continuous charging and discharging creates a frequency generated out there and used to supply to the next section as per the requirement in the circuit from time to time.

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